A comparative overview of European legal systems

A comparative overview of European legal systems

European legal systems are usually divided into three groups: civil law systems; common law systems; and bijuridical systems (which have a mixed civil law/common law heritage). The overwhelming majority of the 50 countries in Europe are classed as civil law jurisdictions. Only Cyprus, Malta, Ireland, and the UK utilise common law systems. This article outlines the differences between the systems. Civil law systems The origins of European civil law can be traced back to the sixth century…

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Are the police allowed to take and keep fingerprints and DNA?

Are the police allowed to take and keep fingerprints and DNA?

Fingerprints and DNA samples are forms of identification evidence, which the police may use to link a suspect to a crime or crime scene. However, it is important to be aware of the circumstances in which the police are able to take such evidence. Fingerprints A suspect’s fingerprints may be taken either with or without his consent under section 61 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE); however, if the suspect is at…

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Are there any circumstances when disability discrimination is allowed?

Are there any circumstances when disability discrimination is allowed?

In a few cases, an organisation would not be breaking the law by treating disabled people less favourably. This is if: your safety or that of other people would otherwise be put at risk; it would not otherwise be possible to provide the service, either to you or to anyone else. For example, it may be lawful for a tour guide to refuse to allow a person with severely impaired mobility on a tour of…

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As a leasehold council tenant what am I responsible for?

As a leasehold council tenant what am I responsible for?

If you are a leaseholder of a council property, the council retains responsibility for the land on which the property is built, and the main structural elements of the building. During the lease, the tenant is responsible for everything within the property walls. What is a lease? A lease is a private contract between the leaseholder and the landlord. The lease sets out the contractual obligations and rights of the two parties. Although many leases…

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Becoming a School Governor

Becoming a School Governor

What is a school governor? A school governor is part of a governing body that can affect the leadership of a school.  However, a governor does not act independently. Instead, a governor will work with other governors and make decisions about the school together. What does a school governor do? School governors have a variety of duties including: Setting the objectives and aims of a school Creating policy to aid in the pursuit of said…

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Can I appeal a council housing reallocation?

Can I appeal a council housing reallocation?

You can ask your council to review a decision to treat you as ineligible if you haven’t been given preference under the scheme due to ‘unacceptable behaviour’. This is behaviour serious enough to make a person unsuitable to be a tenant of the housing authority How to apply for a review If you think the decision is wrong you must write to the council. A senior officer who was not involved in the original decision…

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Can I appeal against an enforcement notice?

Can I appeal against an enforcement notice?

If you have been served with an enforcement notice this information can help you decide whether there are grounds for appeal. Appeals process If you have gone ahead without the required permission the council may simply ask you to apply retrospectively. Much depends on the nature of the development and its effect on neighbours. If the council considers that the development involves a breach of planning control, it may take remedial enforcement action. You can…

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Can I be arrested for joining a public protest?

Can I be arrested for joining a public protest?

Protesting is seen as essential to a modern-day democracy and, therefore, you should not be arrested for staging a peaceful public protest so long as you do not break any laws. Thousands of people protest each year, usually against the government for certain legislation it is planning to implement. The most famous protest in recent years was the protest against the Iraq war, when over a hundred thousand people marched through the streets of London…

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Can I change my council home to another one in another area?

Can I change my council home to another one in another area?

If you are a social housing tenant there are a number of ways that you can apply to move home to another area. One alternative is to use a mobility scheme. Mobility schemes are designed to assist social housing tenants who wish to move within the social rented sector. Housing mobility schemes There are currently two housing mobility schemes: Seaside & Country Homes and LAWN and these are delivered by the housingmoves service on behalf…

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Can I claim any benefits if I am in residential care?

Can I claim any benefits if I am in residential care?

If you are moving permanently into residential care, and the council or NHS is paying your fees, some of the benefits you are already receiving may stop after a time. If you are paying the fees yourself, you may find that you are entitled to more help than when you were living at home. For example: The rules are different on the levels of savings you can have – the limits are higher if you…

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Can I exchange my council house or flat?

Can I exchange my council house or flat?

If you are a council house tenant wanting to move home, you may be able to exchange your home with another council or housing association tenant – this is called mutual exchange. Find out about mutual exchange A mutual exchange gives council tenants the opportunity to live in the property and area that meets their needs. The process involves two or more tenants exchanging their homes. For tenants of registered social landlords (other local authorities…

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Can I get a free passport as a veteran?

Can I get a free passport as a veteran?

Veterans and others who were involved in the Second World War can get a free 10-year passport. They are available to all UK citizens who were born before 3 September 1929. For more information, call the UK Passport Adviceline (see ‘Further help’). Disclaimer: If you cannot find what you are looking for on Findlaw.co.uk please let us know by contacting us at: findlaw.portalmanager@thomsonreuters.com. Furthermore, please be aware that while we attempt to ensure all our…

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Can I get communal areas and services repaired by the council if I live in council housing?

Can I get communal areas and services repaired by the council if I live in council housing?

If you live in a house or block of flats with other tenants there will be areas and services of the property used by several people. Some areas or services will be your responsibility to repair and maintain while others will be fall to your landlord. What are communal areas and services? Communal areas are those areas of a house or a block of flats or a street or an estate which tenants have a…

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Can I get help from the council if I have become homeless?

Can I get help from the council if I have become homeless?

You don’t have to be living on the streets to be considered homeless. You can be legally homeless if your home is unsuitable for you or you have no legal right to be there. Find out what help your council can give you if you’re homeless or at risk of losing your home. Homelessness and your council Homelessness Councils must ensure that free housing advice and information is available for everyone. They must also provide…

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Can I get help if I look after someone?

Can I get help if I look after someone?

You have the legal right to an assessment, called a carer’s assessment, if you provide a lot of care for someone and are not paid for it. A carer’s assessment will look at whether the person you care for is getting the right support and services, and also at: your needs; whether you have a choice over the type of caring tasks you do and how long you spend doing them; and whether your work,…

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Can I make a citizen’s arrest?

Can I make a citizen’s arrest?

Can I make a citizen’s arrest?

What is a ‘citizen’s arrest’? An arrest is best left to the police. However, the law accepts that this is not always possible – hence, the law of ‘citizen’s arrest’. The law of citizen’s arrest starts with the premise that detaining another person is unlawful in itself. In England and Wales, the power to detain a person suspected of involvement in criminal activity is a statutory power laid down in section 24A of the Police…

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Can I make Improvements to my council property?

Can I make Improvements to my council property?

Your ability to make improvements to your council property is determined by the kind of tenancy you have. There are two types of tenancy: introductory tenancies and secure tenancies. Your tenancy agreement outlines your rights and responsibilities as an introductory or secure tenant. What is the difference between an introductory tenancy and a secure tenancy? An introductory tenancy typically lasts for a year. As a new council tenant, you may be offered an introductory tenancy,…

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Can I teach my child at home?

Can I teach my child at home?

You do not usually need permission to teach your child at home. However, if your child is of compulsory school age and is registered at a school, you should first write to the school to ask it to remove your child’s name from the school roll. The school must then let the LA know of this within two school weeks. You need permission to take your child off the school roll only if they go…

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Can I vote in UK elections if I live abroad?

Can I vote in UK elections if I live abroad?

If you move abroad, you can vote in general elections and European Union elections for up to 15 years, but you need to be registered. However, you can’t vote in UK local government elections. You can also vote by post or proxy if you’ll be temporarily abroad on election day. Registering as an overseas voter Registering to vote Follow the link below to find out how to register to vote Registering to vote If you…

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Do human rights apply to convicted criminals?

Do human rights apply to convicted criminals?

The human rights enshrined within the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which has been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998, apply to everyone, including convicted criminals. Some of these rights are absolute, such as the right not to be subjected to torture or inhuman and degrading treatment; however, some rights are subject to limitations and, if there is a good legal basis for doing so, they can be restricted. Consequently,…

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Do I have the right to compel the council to make repairs to my home if I am a council tenant?

Do I have the right to compel the council to make repairs to my home if I am a council tenant?

The council has a legal duty to repair urgent problems in your council-owned home, which could affect your health, safety or security within a specific time period. This is called the ‘Right to Repair’ scheme. Right to Repair scheme As a council tenant, you can use the Right to Repair scheme for small repair jobs – that is, jobs that cost less than £250 to carry out. You must permit your council’s contractor to carry…

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Do I have to do jury service and what is it like?

Do I have to do jury service and what is it like?

Jury Service is a civic duty and you can therefore be called upon to be part of a jury at any point. For public policy reasons it is clear that there always needs to be sufficient people to partake in jury service and that it should cover all demographics. For that reason it is very difficult to avoid jury service, which in almost all cases is a mandatory requirement. A jury consists of 12 randomly…

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Do I need planning permission?

Do I need planning permission?

Before you start any building work, you must check if you need planning permission. If you fail to do this, you may break the law. Find out how to apply for planning permission and what other permissions – for example, relating to party walls – you might need before work begins. Find out if you need planning permission Use the interactive house on the Planning Portal, the government’s planning and building resource, to find out…

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Do I need to apply for planning permission?

Do I need to apply for planning permission?

Whether or not you need to apply for planning permission, you should think about the following before you start work. Neighbours Let your neighbours know about work you intend to carry out to your property. They are likely to be as concerned about work which might affect them as you would be about changes which might affect your enjoyment of your own property. Even if what you want to do would be lawful from a…

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Do we need a UK Bills of Rights?

Do we need a UK Bills of Rights?

The UK is one of the few states in the world that does not have a written constitution. A constitution is a document which sets out the rights of every citizen and dictates how power should be used. The most famous example is the US constitution which lists the rights of citizens and acts as guidance for powerful institutions such as Congress. The constitution itself is of course a clear and identifiable symbol of a…

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Does the UK use identity cards?

Does the UK use identity cards?

Through the Identity Cards Act, the Government introduced national identity cards in 2006. What was the intended purpose of national identity cards in the UK? Intended as a weapon in the fight against crime, they were to assist in targeting terrorists, serious criminals using fake identities, welfare cheats and illegal immigrants. The identity card was linked to a national identity database containing photographs, national insurance numbers, dates of birth, addresses and biometric information such as…

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Have my civil rights been violated?

Have my civil rights been violated?

Civil rights is an umbrella term used for all of the rights an individual should have. The name derives from the concept of the citizen, and the rights that they should have regardless of state powers. There are many civil rights, and the civil rights movement has changed all sections of society in many different countries. In the UK perhaps the most iconic period for civil rights began with the suffragette movement which sparked a…

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How are complaints handled if I make a complaint against a private organisation?

How are complaints handled if I make a complaint against a private organisation?

Different industries can have different ways of dealing with complaints. Find out who to complain to about private companies, radio and television channels and advertising, and how to prevent unwanted emails, faxes and telephone calls. Industry ombudsmen Many industries have their own ombudsman scheme or other complaint-handling body. These provide independent and impartial means of resolving disputes outside the courts. Each ombudsman scheme operates under slightly different rules. In general though, an ombudsman will not…

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How are laws made in Parliament?

How are laws made in Parliament?

Law in the UK comes from one of a number of different sources, but ultimately the power to produce laws is vested in Parliament. In the UK the principle parliament is based at the Palace of Westminster, although since 1998 the territories of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have had their own legislatures with varying degrees of power to create new law. In Scotland the Scottish Parliament, which sits in Holyrood in Edinburgh, has fairly…

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How are local councils structured?

How are local councils structured?

Across the country, local governmental bodies are organised into a mixture of one-tier and two-tier systems. How your local system is arranged will depend upon where you live. Find out more below. County and district councils In most of England, there are two levels: a county council and a district council. County councils cover large areas and provide most public services, including schools, social services, and public transportation. Each county is divided into several districts….

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How are rents set for council housing?

How are rents set for council housing?

Each council is responsible for setting the level of rent that it charges its tenants. Find out how your council sets the rent it charges what is included, where the money goes and how to challenge rent increases. How your rent is set Housing associations and councils charge similar levels of rent for properties of a similar size, condition and location, regardless of landlord. The level of the rent is determined by how much your…

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How byelaws are made and enforced?

How byelaws are made and enforced?

Certain Acts of Parliament authorise local councils and other bodies to make ‘byelaws,’ which are regional laws made to handle local issues. What is a byelaw? A byelaw calls for an act or omission in a particular location, which is enforced by a sanction or penalty for failure to observe it. If made properly, byelaws have the same legal effect within their areas of influence as regular laws. To be considered valid, a byelaw must:…

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How can I buy my council or housing association home?

How can I buy my council or housing association home?

If you’re a council or housing association tenant, there are government schemes in place to help you buy your home. You can use Right to Buy and Right to Acquire to buy your home at a discount. You need to have been a tenant for at least five years. Help buying your home the basics You can use the Right to Buy and Right to Acquire schemes to buy your home at a discount on…

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How can I contact the Citizens Advice Bureau?

How can I contact the Citizens Advice Bureau?

Citizens Advice Bureau Contact details for the Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB), which has a network of advice centres across the UK. It offers advice on a wide range of subjects from housing and health, to debt and consumer issues Find your nearest CAB officeOpens new window Citizens Advice Bureau Contact point Citizens Advice Bureau Address Myddelton House 115-123 Pentonville Road London N1 9LZ Phone number Admin office only 020 7833 2181 Fax 020 7833 4371…

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How can I deal with discrimination at work?

How can I deal with discrimination at work?

If your discrimination happened at work, you may be able to take your case to an employment tribunal. The law says that you and your employer must follow a statutory grievance procedure (one set by law) before you can take your case to a tribunal. This means that you must send your employer a grievance, which is a letter saying why you believe you were discriminated against. You must normally do this within three months…

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How can I find out how the council spends my money?

How can I find out how the council spends my money?

How is my local council funded? Local councils are funded in a number of ways. Firstly, the receive grant money from central government, secondly they received money from business taxes and finally they receive money through the council tax scheme. How can I see on what my local council spends its money? Councils are expected to share information about their spending. If you visit your local council’s website you should find information on how it…

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How can I get help with planning permission?

How can I get help with planning permission?

A wide range of advice is available to help you get involved in the planning system. Getting advice from your Local Planning Authority Your Local Planning Authority (LPA)is responsible for dealing with applications for planning permission in your area. LPAs employ professional planners to advise them in preparing Development Plans for an area and making decisions on individual planning applications. These officers are an important source of local knowledge and advice and should be your…

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How can I get repairs and maintenance carried out on my council property?

How can I get repairs and maintenance carried out on my council property?

If you live in a council house your council is responsible for certain types of maintenance and repairs to your home and building or estate. Find out how to request repairs, how long they should take, what your responsibilities are and how to complain about your council. Repairs and your responsibilities as a tenant Your council is not responsible for all repairs and maintenance. Youre likely to be responsible for things like: fixing a curtain…

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How can I get the right education for my child if they have special needs?

How can I get the right education for my child if they have special needs?

A child has special needs and should get help at school if they: have significantly more difficulty in learning than other children of the same age; have a disability which affects how they can use educational facilities that are usually provided for children of the same age in the same area; or are under five, and are likely to fall within these categories when they reach compulsory school age. A learning difficulty can be the…

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How can I improve my council property?

How can I improve my council property?

If youre a council tenant you may want to carry out improvements to your property. The type of improvements you can do depends on what council tenancy you have. Find out more about carrying out work and when you need to get your councils permission. Check what kind of improvements you can make If youre unsure what type of improvements you can make – contact your council Find your local councilOpens new window The kind…

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How can I insure my council home and its contents?

How can I insure my council home and its contents?

Councils are not responsible for insuring council tenants furniture or possessions. If you are a council tenant and believe that the council is responsible for damage to you or your possessions you may be able to make an insurance claim. What the council insures The council insures its council dwellings and, thus, in the case of a fire that destroyed a property the council would claim on its insurance for the cost of repairing the…

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How can I make an urgent or fast-track application to the court of protection?

How can I make an urgent or fast-track application to the court of protection?

If you have reason to believe that someone close to you does not have the capacity to make important decisions that affect their life, you can make an application to the Court of Protection in order to be appointed their ‘deputy.’ An order from the Court of Protection authorises you – the deputy – to make decisions on behalf of the person close to you (the ‘donor’). However, you must be at least 18 years…

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How can I protect my child from abuse at school?

How can I protect my child from abuse at school?

Everyone in the education service plays a part in keeping children and young people safe. Creating a safe learning environment, identifying pupils who are suffering or at risk of harm and then taking appropriate action are vital to ensuring children are safe at home and at school. The role of the school in protecting your child from abuse Your child’s school should have a number of measures in place to help protect them, including: staff…

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How can the council help me with problems with drains and sewers?

How can the council help me with problems with drains and sewers?

This guide details who is responsible for solving problems with drains and sewers. In general, you are responsible for drains within the boundaries of your property while the sewerage firm is responsible for lateral drains, which fall outside property boundaries and sewers. Although the majority of sewers are publicly-owned, some continue to be private or unadopted sewers. If your property is served by one of these sewers, you may be liable for its maintenance. Drain…

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How do I apply for a dropped kerb?

How do I apply for a dropped kerb?

If you would like to lower the kerb in front of your property to provide vehicle access from the road to a driveway and parking area, you will need to obtain permission from your local council. What is a ‘dropped kerb’? A ‘dropped kerb,’ or vehicle crossing, is the dip in the path and kerb that enables you to drive up to your property. Creating a dropped kerb involves lowering the kerb from its regular…

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How do I apply to live in a housing association property?

How do I apply to live in a housing association property?

Housing associations offer independent property for rent run by Registered Social Landlords (RSLs). Find out how you can submit an application to be considered for housing association accommodation. Information on housing associations There are two routes you can take to be considered for a housing association property. You can apply directly to the relevant housing association or to your local council which may then ‘nominate’ you for a property. In both cases, you will have…

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How do I buy a home through Right to Acquire?

How do I buy a home through Right to Acquire?

Buying your housing association home with the Right to Acquire scheme is a simple process. First, youll need to ask your landlord if you qualify for the scheme. Find out what else you need to do and when. Your Right to Acquire application To start the process, ask your landlord for the Right to Acquire claim form (RTA1). You can also download the form from the link below. Complete and return the RTA1 form to…

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How do I change or transfer my housing association tenancy agreement?

How do I change or transfer my housing association tenancy agreement?

When you assign or ‘sign over’ your tenancy, all of your rights and duties under the tenancy agreement pass from you to the new tenant. Your right to assign your tenancy depends on the kind of tenancy you have. For your assignment to have the force of law, the following statements must be true: You have the right to assign the tenancy You must use a ‘deed of assignment’ to assign the tenancy You have…

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How do I change or transfer my tenancy agreement?

How do I change or transfer my tenancy agreement?

When you assign or ‘sign over’ your tenancy, all of your rights and duties under the tenancy agreement pass from you to the new tenant. Your right to assign your tenancy depends on the kind of tenancy you have. For your assignment to have the force of law, the following statements must be true: You have the right to assign the tenancy You use a ‘deed of assignment’ to assign the tenancy You have the…

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How do I comment on appeals?

How do I comment on appeals?

There is no third party right of appeal in England and Wales. However, anyone who lives near the appeal site or has an interest in the appeal can make a comment on the process. Who to contact should you wish to comment Appeals are handled by the Planning Inspectorate not the local authority. If you wish to comment on an appeal you will need to make your views known to the Planning Inspectorate. The way…

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How do I comment on other local council applications?

How do I comment on other local council applications?

If you wish to have your say on a planning application, there is a limited amount of time in which you can send comments to the local planning office as the decision process needs to stick to timetables. Finding out about developments If you are affected by a new development proposal, you may first hear about it as a neighbour who is informally consulted by the developer. After the planning application has been made, the…

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How do I complain about local authority services?

How do I complain about local authority services?

If you feel that a council service has not been properly delivered, you can submit an official complaint to your local authority. Making a formal complaint Your local authority welcomes feedback on the standard of service it provides. In this way they can learn from mistakes and improve services. If you have a concern or suggestion about a service, write or speak to a member of staff or the service manager. Contact information for this,…

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How do I complain about the police or council concerning the handling of crime or anti-social behaviour?

How do I complain about the police or council concerning the handling of crime or anti-social behaviour?

The Police will always aim to provide a high quality service and a quick and effective solution to anti-social behaviour or crime.There may be times when this doesnt happen or you wish to comment on the service you have received (including when you want to give positive feedback). You can do this in a number of ways. You can raise issues with your neighbourhood policing team: in person at a community meeting by speaking to…

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How do I deal with other types of discrimination?

How do I deal with other types of discrimination?

You should take your claim to the county court if you have been discriminated against because of your sex, and it was about: buying or renting a house or flat; going to school or university; or buying and using goods or services. The Equal Opportunities Commission can give you help and advice. It can also advise you how to deal with a complaint, including going to a tribunal or to court. See ‘Further help’ for…

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How do I find listed buildings?

How do I find listed buildings?

You can find out if a building is listed through your local council. Finding listed buildings in your area If you want to do building work in your home or are moving into a new home which you plan to do building work on in future, you should check it’s not a listed building because different rules apply in this case. Your local council may have a list or catalogue of listed buildings, or you…

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How do I get graffiti and flyposters removed?

How do I get graffiti and flyposters removed?

Graffiti and flyposting are illegal, spoil both public and private property and can be very costly to remove. Flyposting is the unauthorised placing of advertising – usually posters or stickers. You can report graffiti and flyposting to your council. Graffiti and flyposting fines Graffiti are words or drawings, that are written, painted, sprayed or scratched on the surface of any property. Flyposters usually advertise or promote events and are placed without permission of the owner…

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How do I make a complaint about a judicial office holder?

How do I make a complaint about a judicial office holder?

If you want to make a complaint about someone who holds a judicial office – a judge, a magistrate, a tribunal member or a coroner you can do this through the Office for Judicial Complaints (OJC). Complaints that the Office for Judicial Complaints deals with Office for Judicial Complaints Enquiry Line: 020 7189 2937 The OJCdeals with complaints about judicial office holders own personal conduct it does not deal with complaints about judicial decisions, or…

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How do I make a complaint against a government or public body?

How do I make a complaint against a government or public body?

If you want to complain about the behaviour of someone in government or a public body you need to contact the right people. There are organisations you can go to if you are unhappy with the way your complaint was handled. Government organisations and public bodies the Ombudsman deals with complaints about poor service, unfair treatment and administrative failures You can contact the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman about UK government services or the NHS…

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How do I make a complaint against a private organisation?

How do I make a complaint against a private organisation?

Different industries can have different ways of dealing with complaints. Find out who to complain to about private companies, radio and television channels and advertising, and how to prevent unwanted emails, faxes and telephone calls. Industry ombudsmen Many industries have their own ombudsman scheme or other complaint-handling body. These provide independent and impartial means of resolving disputes outside the courts. Each ombudsman scheme operates under slightly different rules. In general though, an ombudsman will not…

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How do I make a complaint to my child’s school?

How do I make a complaint to my child’s school?

If your child has a problem at school you should be able to sort it out through an informal discussion with your child’s teacher. If you can’t resolve a problem informally, the school should have a formal complaints procedure that you can follow. Contacting your child’s school If you’re worried about your child’s learning or welfare at school, your child’s class teacher or head of year is the best person to approach first. Teachers will…

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How do I make a planning application to the local council?

How do I make a planning application to the local council?

If you need planning permission for your building work, you can apply online through the Planning Portal to your local council. Find out how to apply, how much it costs and how long it takes. Check first if you need planning permission For many smaller building developments you don’t need planning permission Before applying for planning permission make sure you need it for your planned building work. A number of smaller building developments, e.g. many…

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How do I make an appeal against a planning decision?

How do I make an appeal against a planning decision?

In all likelihood, you will need to secure planning permission if you would like to do any of the following: Construct a new building Make a significant change to your building, such as a building extension or loft conversion Change the main use of your building.   Eligibility to appeal a planning decision Your local planning authority (LPA) is responsible for making decisions on planning applications. If you are the person who made the application,…

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How do I pay my council rent?

How do I pay my council rent?

It is important to keep up to date with rent payments and seek help as soon as you have problems. Find out how your council can help you pay your rent if you have difficulties. Payment methods There are a number of ways to pay your rent such as at a Post Office, by Direct Debit, by cheque, Switch or debit card. Your council may also provide other payment options. Direct Debit is an easy…

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How do I register for a council property?

How do I register for a council property?

Each local authority will have different criteria for entry to its housing register. Find out how you can apply for a council property. Apply to join the housing register You can apply to join a council’s housing register, even if you do not live in the area. However, councils are allowed to give people who already live in the area priority so contact the housing department of the relevant council. The following links will let…

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How do I register to vote?

How do I register to vote?

You need to be on the electoral register to vote in UK elections and referendums. You’re not automatically registered, and you have to renew your details every year. Find out who is eligible and how to make sure you’re registered to vote. The electoral register The electoral register (sometimes called the ‘electoral roll’) is a list of the names and addresses of everyone who is registered to vote. It’s also used by credit reference agencies…

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How do I rent a council garage?

How do I rent a council garage?

If you wish to apply to rent a council garage, your local council may be able to help. Priority is usually given to existing council tenants. Find out more information about renting a council garage below. Applying for a council garage You need to contact your local council and ask for a garage application form. Once this form has been completed and returned, you are added to the waiting list and told when your turn…

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How do I rent an allotment?

How do I rent an allotment?

Due to lengthy waiting lists, applying for an allotment can take a long time. In the first instance, you should contact your local authority. The gov.uk website has a search facility for local authority websites. Your local authority will furnish you with a directory of local sites where you can add your name to a list for your nearest site. Other allotment sites are supplied by private landlords, including bodies such as the Church of…

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How do I report a planning breach?

How do I report a planning breach?

If you believe a development has breached a planning control you can contact your local planning authority. What is a planning breach? A planning breach usually occurs when: a development that requires planning permission is undertaken without the permission being granted – either because the planning application was refused or was never applied for a development that has been given permission subject to conditions breaks one or more of those conditions A planning breach in…

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How do I report an abandoned vehicle?

How do I report an abandoned vehicle?

This guide provides information on reporting abandoned and nuisance vehicles. You should report an abandoned or nuisance vehicle to your local council by entering your postcode on the gov.uk website. What is the difference between an abandoned vehicle and a nuisance vehicle? A vehicle is considered ‘abandoned’ when council inspectors deem that it has been abandoned without legal authority as set out in the Refuse Disposal (Amenity) Act 1978. By contrast, a vehicle is deemed…

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How do I report anti-social behaviour?

How do I report anti-social behaviour?

If youre faced with noisy neighbours, or youve seen someone littering, drawing graffiti, or committing other acts of anti-social behaviour, you shouldnt suffer in silence. Find out how to let the police and other authorities know. Tell someone what’s happening The first step is to speak to members of your local neighbourhood policing team. Those teams work closely with residents to help stop anti-social behaviour, so they need to know what’s happening in your area….

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How do I report problems with street names and numbering?

How do I report problems with street names and numbering?

Addresses are important as they give police, emergency services, and the general public a way of locating and referencing properties. Your council is the local street naming and numbering authority. Find out how to rename a street or report street naming problems in your area. Renaming and renumbering streets Sometimes it is necessary to rename or renumber a street. This is usually only done as a last resort when: there is confusion over a street’s…

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How do I vote in an election?

How do I vote in an election?

You can vote in three ways. Find out what you need to do when you go to vote on election day, and how you can vote by post or proxy (someone voting for you) if you can’t get to the polling station. Registering to vote To vote in UK elections and referendums, you must be on the electoral register (the list of eligible voters). Find out more in ‘Registering to vote’. Registering to vote How…

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How do police budgets work?

How do police budgets work?

Your police force receives money from both national and local governments every year. While they have some freedom in how they spend the money, there are fairly strict limitations on spending. You have a right to know how much your local force spends. The role of police authorities Britain does not have a single national police force. Instead in England and Wales there are 43 individual forces. Each force operates under guidelines set by the…

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How does my local council work?

How does my local council work?

Local councils are run by democratically-elected councillors. They are responsible for making decisions on behalf of the local community about local services, such as land use, refuse collection, and leisure facilities. County and district councils In most of the country there are two tiers of local government: county councils and district councils. Larger towns and cities have just one council providing all the functions of the two. Parish and town councils In addition, all of…

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How does the Human Rights Act apply to racial discrimination?

How does the Human Rights Act apply to racial discrimination?

The Human Rights Act protects against a wide range of discrimination – including many types that are not covered by other discrimination laws. However, you can only use it where an organisation’s action or decision breaches one of your rights under this Act, such as the right to ‘respect for private and family life’. Also, rights under the Human Rights Act can only be claimed against a public authority (for example, the police, a local…

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How does the Human Rights Act operate in the workplace?

How does the Human Rights Act operate in the workplace?

Your human rights are protected by the law. If your employer is a public authority, they must follow the principles of the Human Rights Act. Read about your human rights at work and what to do if you think they’ve been breached. The Human Rights Act The Human Rights Act was introduced in October 2000. It’s based on the European Convention on Human Rights and adds protection for workers’ rights and freedoms. Provisions within the…

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How does the Human Rights Act work?

How does the Human Rights Act work?

What is the Human Rights Act? The Human Rights Act is a UK law that was passed in 1998. The law was designed to ensure everyone in the UK is treated fairly and with respect.  It was written using the articles of the European Convention on Human Rights. The law ensures those rights guaranteed by the European Convention are followed in the British justice system. What rights does the Human Rights Act protect? The Human…

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How does the judicial system work?

How does the judicial system work?

The United Kingdom has three different judicial systems one for England and Wales, another for Scotland and a third for Northern Ireland. Heres some basic information about each system and how it affects you. In England and Wales Criminal law covers the most serious crimes, such as murder, robbery and assault. These laws are enforced by the police and the courts, and anyone who breaks them can be prosecuted in court. If they are found…

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How should I respond to racial harassment at work?

How should I respond to racial harassment at work?

It is against the law for your employer or a colleague to racially harass you. If the person harassing you does not stop after you have asked them to, you should complain to your employer. Many employers treat racial harassment by their staff as a disciplinary offence, and they should discipline the person harassing you. If your employer does not do anything or does not do enough to prevent it, you can take a claim…

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I am having difficulties with my university. What can I do?

I am having difficulties with my university. What can I do?

Who to approach if you are having problems with your university. If you are having difficulties with your university, remember that you have rights in the relationship. Your relationship with the university is controlled by the same set of rules that control any other contract. Your university is also bound by special rules that apply to public bodies. In addition, your university will have its own regulations, which differ between universities. You can usually find…

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I am homeless. What can the council do to help?

I am homeless. What can the council do to help?

The council should investigate why you became homeless. They may do this straight away, or ask you to return to their office at a later date. The council normally has 33 working days to make a decision. The council must tell you their decision in writing. If you think that the council have got it wrong you have the right to ask for this decision to be reviewed. Even if the council decides you are…

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I can’t get my child into the school I want. What can I do?

I can’t get my child into the school I want. What can I do?

Your rights when choosing a school for your child. You have the right to choose which state school in your area you want your child to go to. However, if that school is full or your child doesn’t meet its entry requirements you may be turned down. You may also have problems if your child has been excluded from their previous school two or more times. If more children apply for a place than there…

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Important UK legal history

Important UK legal history

There are many online sources of information relating to historic documents and the cultural heritage of the United Kingdom. Key historical documents Key sources The National Archives, the British Library and the Parliamentary Archives hold the key documents relating to UK history. There’s a lot of information available online and some other sources are listed below. National Archives Opens new window The British Library Opens new window Magna Carta Magna Carta is often thought of…

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Key facts about the United Kingdom

Key facts about the United Kingdom

If you’re looking for key facts about the UK and its overseas territories, there are good sources of information available online and elsewhere. ‘UK’ or ‘Britain’? The full title of this country is ‘the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland': Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales the United Kingdom (UK)is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland ‘Britain’ is used informally, usually meaning the United Kingdom. The…

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MEPs: who are they and what do they do?

MEPs: who are they and what do they do?

MEP is an abbreviation used to refer to a Member of the European Parliament. The European Parliament derives from the European Community Treaty of 1957 and became a directly elected body of members in 1979. How are MEPs chosen? The European Parliament is currently the only directly elected institution in the European Community. By directly elected, we mean that in other institutions such as the European Council and European Commission, members are selected from different…

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My child has difficulty learning and may need some more support in school. How do I ask for this?

My child has difficulty learning and may need some more support in school. How do I ask for this?

Find out what additional support your child can get at school. You should ask to speak to the Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO), the teacher who arranges extra help. Explain why you are concerned and what you think might help. Schools should provide extra help for children with learning difficulties in whatever way meets their needs. This could mean using different teaching methods with your child, offering them the support of a teaching assistant or…

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My child is being bullied at school. What can I do?

My child is being bullied at school. What can I do?

If your child is being bullied at school, there are a number of steps you can take to combat the problem. Initially, you can contact your child’s school and outline your concerns in a non-confrontational way. If your child is in primary school, ask the class teacher if they can monitor the situation and alert you if they have any concerns. If your child is in secondary school, you should direct your complaint to the…

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My child is being excluded from school. What are our rights?

My child is being excluded from school. What are our rights?

How to deal with your child’s temporary or permanent exclusion from school. Your child may be excluded from school for a fixed number of days or permanently. The school must state in writing why they are excluding him or her. If the school hasn’t done so, contact them immediately and ask for the reasons. It is important to keep a copy of all correspondence with the school. If you disagree with the reasons for exclusion,…

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My child is being treated unfairly at school because of their disability. What can I do?

My child is being treated unfairly at school because of their disability. What can I do?

Find out your options if you think your child is being discriminated against at school. Schools must not discriminate against a child for a reason related to their disability unless they cannot reasonably avoid it. First check whether the unfair treatment is covered by disability discrimination law. The law applies to admissions, exclusions, education and associated services – so most aspects of education such as teaching and learning, school trips and breaks and lunchtimes are…

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My child is truanting. What are my responsibilties and rights?

My child is truanting. What are my responsibilties and rights?

What to do if your child is truanting from school. If your child is truanting, you must remember that it is your legal duty to try to ensure that they go to school. If you don’t try to make your children go to school then it is possible that you could be prosecuted. If your child is truanting, try to find out why. It may be that they are being bullied at school or they…

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My house is a listed building, what does that mean?

My house is a listed building, what does that mean?

If your house is included on a statutory list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest, compiled and managed by English Heritage, then it is classed as a ‘listed building’. This means that the property is legally protected, in order to preserve and safeguard it for future enjoyment. It means that any proposed alterations to the building must be considered in conjunction with the historical and architectural interest of the building before they are…

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My house is part of a Council Stock Transfer. How does this affect me?

My house is part of a Council Stock Transfer. How does this affect me?

A ‘council stock transfer’ means that you change from being a secure tenant of the council to an assured tenant of a registered social landlord. Before a transfer can take place your new landlord must agree to offer a new assured tenancy agreement. Your new tenancy agreement specifies your rights and sets out details of the rent and any other charges, how often they will increase, and how much notice you must get of any…

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Overview of the UK system of government

Overview of the UK system of government

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. A king or queen is the head of state, and a prime minister is the head of government. The people vote in elections for Members of Parliament (MPs) to represent them. Constitution The United Kingdom doesn’t have a single, written constitution (a set of rules of government). But this doesn’t mean that the UK has an unwritten constitution. In fact, it is mostly written…

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Reasonable force or police brutality?

Reasonable force or police brutality?

In common with all citizens, the police may use reasonable force where necessary for self-defence, defence of another, defence of property, the prevention of a crime, or during a lawful arrest. Under Section 117 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), the police are also empowered to use ‘reasonable force’ if necessary when exercising the powers conferred to them under that act (except those which require someone other than a police officer’s consent). What constitutes…

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Should the right to vote be extended to under-18s?

Should the right to vote be extended to under-18s?

For several years, the question of whether the voting age in the UK should be lowered has been debated, yet it remains at 18. In 2004, the Electoral Commission (following a 12-month review on the subject of voting and candidacy ages) recommended that the voting age remained at 18. Both the Labour and Conservative parties followed the Commission’s lead by subsequently ruling out a change. Why should the right to vote be extended? It has…

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The Human Rights Act: a detailed overview

The Human Rights Act: a detailed overview

What is the Human Rights Act? In October 2000, the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998 came into force in the UK. The HRA consists of a number of sections that integrate human rights laws and rules contained in the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law. It outlines fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments that everyone in the UK has access to….

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Veterans: Does my war pension affect my welfare benefits?

Veterans: Does my war pension affect my welfare benefits?

The first 10 a week of your basic war pension is not counted as income when the Department for Work and Pensions is calculating what level of means-tested benefits (such as Income Support, Income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance or pension credit) to pay. But the rest of your war pension counts as income and will affect your benefit. If you need more help on your benefits and how they affect your war disablement pension, contact: the Service…

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Veterans: How can I claim my medals from my time in service?

Veterans: How can I claim my medals from my time in service?

In many cases, you will have received the campaign medals awarded to you while you were still in the armed forces, because you must wear them for ceremonial duties and other functions. However, you may have left the armed forces before your medal was given to you. If so, you must claim the medal from the Ministry of Defence Medal Office (MOD MO). Also, most Second World War servicemen and women were not given medals…

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Veterans: How can I get hold of my service record?

Veterans: How can I get hold of my service record?

You may need to get hold of personal information held by the forces for many reasons, including: to prove you were in the armed forces; for medical reasons; or because you are researching your family history. If you are a former serviceman or woman wanting your own service records, you must make a ‘subject access request’ (SAR). You must make a SAR in writing and you must include proof of your identity, such as a…

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Veterans: What financial help can I get?

Veterans: What financial help can I get?

There are several schemes offering financial help to servicemen and women. Some are pension schemes, and some are compensation schemes that apply if you were injured or if you were a dependant of a serviceman or woman who died in service. The scheme or schemes you may be able to use depend on: your type of service; when you served; and the type of help you need. Below is a brief explanation of each of…

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Veterans: What happens if I go into hospital or need extra care?

Veterans: What happens if I go into hospital or need extra care?

If you have to go into hospital, your basic war pension is not affected. But if you receive certain supplementary allowances, these might be reduced, depending on how long you have to stay in hospital. The Service Personnel and Veterans Agency can help with the cost of travelling for hospital treatment connected with your War Disablement Pension. To get this money, you must tell the agency as soon as you know when your appointment will…

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Veterans: What help can I get to find work when I leave the forces?

Veterans: What help can I get to find work when I leave the forces?

You can get help with resettlement and finding work after you leave the forces through the Career Transition Partnership (CTP). You can get help from the CTP for up to two years before and two years after you leave the Services. The help you can receive depends on how long you have served, but can include: a career transition workshop to identify the skills and experience you have that you can use outside the Services;…

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Veterans: What if I need help finding somewhere to live?

Veterans: What if I need help finding somewhere to live?

The Ministry of Defence and ex-service welfare can help with your housing needs before, while and after you are discharged. If you are homeless or think you might become homeless, you should seek housing advice as early as possible. For information and advice, contact: the Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Families Association – Forces Help (SSAFA Forces Help) Housing Advisory Service; The Royal British Legion; or Ex-Service Action Group on Homelessness (ESAG) for information and advice….

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What are conservation areas?

What are conservation areas?

Conservation areas are places which are desirable to preserve as a result of special architectural or historic interest. You can apply for planning permission to alter a building in a conservation area below. Areas of cultural or historical importance Areas that include important examples of our social, cultural and aesthetic history must be safeguarded from indiscriminate or ill-considered change. These areas often contain listed buildings. However, it is not always enough to protect these buildings…

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What are election observers?

What are election observers?

What is the purpose of election observers? Individuals and organisations interested in observing elections and certain referendums in the UK can apply to the Electoral Commission for accreditation. This unique access serves as a guarantee that UK electoral practices and procedures conform with internationally-recognised standards. What does an election observer do? An accredited election observer is empowered to: 1) attend the issue or receipt of postal ballot papers, the taking of the poll or the…

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What are EU directives?

What are EU directives?

The UK, along with all other member states of the European Union, has passed certain powers to the European Parliament to act jointly with the European Council and European Commission to make regulations, directives and deliver opinions across the European Union. An EU directive is where a ‘directive’ is given to a particular member state, or all member states in the EU and that member state will be expected to implement that particular directive into…

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What are government consultations?

What are government consultations?

A government consultation, put simply, is when the government consults an external group, usually the general public or a group that specialises in a certain area, and takes those opinions on board when producing or amending a new piece of legislation. Why hold a consultation? There are a number of reasons why a government may wish to go through a consultation process, including the following: In order to gain expert opinion – government ministers cannot…

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What are housing associations?

What are housing associations?

Housing associations offer housing to local people often to people on a low income or people who need extra support. Find out more about how they are run, the types of property they offer and applying for a housing association property. How housing associations work Housing associations are separate from councils, but often work closely with them to offer flats and houses to local people. For example, people who become housing association tenants may have…

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What are introductory council tenancies?

What are introductory council tenancies?

Many councils offer what is termed an ‘ introductory tenancy’. This is a 12 month probationary tenancy after which tenants may become a secure tenant, provided they meet the conditions of their tenancy agreement. Are you an introductory tenant? You are probably an introductory tenant if your council runs an introductory tenancy scheme (not all councils do run such a scheme), and you satisfy all of the following conditions: the council has given you a…

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What are my civil rights and civil liberties?

What are my civil rights and civil liberties?

The UK has a tradition of civil rights and civil liberties dating back at least to the Magna Carta in the 13th century. Whilst successive governments have repealed most of the Magna Carta over the past 200 years or so, its guarantee of due process of law remains in effect. Other old statutes, such as the Bill of Rights 1689, contain civil liberties provisions that continue to apply today. The UK is, however, somewhat unusual…

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What are my EU rights?

What are my EU rights?

If you’re an EU citizen, you have the right to reside, work and study in any of the 27 EU member states. As this article shows, however, the law imposes a number of limits on your EU rights. Right of residence The conditions placed on your right to reside in another EU country will depend on your status. For example, if you are a student, unemployed, or want to retire in an EU country in…

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What are my rights when it comes to discrimination?

What are my rights when it comes to discrimination?

The law protects you from discrimination due to your age, gender, race, religion or beliefs, disability or sexual orientation. Find out where and how you are protected, and what to do if you have been discriminated against. Who is protected? Discrimination can happen in many different ways but you have rights to protect you By law people are protected from discrimination on the grounds of: race sex sexual orientation disability (or because of something connected…

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What are secure council tenancies?

What are secure council tenancies?

Where councils operate an introductory tenancy scheme you will automatically become a secure tenant after 12 months, provided you don’t breach the conditions of your tenancy. Your rights as a secure tenant As a secure tenant you have the right , subject to meeting any applicable criteria or gaining the requisite approval to: live in your home for the rest of your life as long as you continue to comply with the requirements of your…

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What are special educational needs?

What are special educational needs?

If your child has more difficulties than most children their age with schoolwork, communication or behaviour, plenty of help and advice is at hand from special educational needs specialists, teachers and voluntary organisations. What ‘special educational needs’ means The term ‘special educational needs’ (SEN) has a legal definition, referring to children who have learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn or access education than most children of the same age….

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What are the differences between a monarchy and a republic?

What are the differences between a monarchy and a republic?

A major and obvious difference between a monarchy and a republic is the way that the head of state is selected. In a republic , the head of state is generally elected; whilst a monarch gains power by virtue of hereditary succession. There are, however, some other, far more consequential differences between the two. Consider, for instance, the way sovereign power is allocated in each system, and also the ultimate source of that power. How…

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What are the differences between police officers, special constables and PCSOs?

What are the differences between police officers, special constables and PCSOs?

Police officers, special constables and Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) are all employed by police forces within the UK, yet they all have different roles and powers. Police Officers Police officers enforce the law within the UK by apprehending criminals, preventing and detecting crime and maintaining public order. They have a wide range of powers provided under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and will be the most commonly recognisable members of the police…

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What are the protocols in the Human Rights Act?

What are the protocols in the Human Rights Act?

The protocols are new parts of the Convention, added since the Convention was first written. ‘Property’ has a very wide meaning. It can include shares, a pension, welfare benefits that you have contributed to by paying national insurance, or even the right to sue someone. The article says the Government or a public authority cannot take your property away from you unless the law states that it can and it is in the public interest…

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What can happen if my child is truant from school?

What can happen if my child is truant from school?

As a parent, you are legally responsible for ensuring that your child receives a full-time education. If your child fails to attend school on a regular basis, you will ultimately be held liable. This will be the case even if your child is truanting without your knowledge. Your child will not be excluded from school if they have been truanting. However, a school may wish to exclude your child if they have been truanting and…

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What can I do about disability discrimination?

What can I do about disability discrimination?

If you have been discriminated against, first think about what you want to be done. Depending on how you were discriminated against, you may want: your job back; compensation; an apology; or a clear sign that an organisation won’t discriminate in the same way in future. Whatever you want, it is usually best to first try to sort out the matter with the person or organisation that has discriminated against you. You may want to…

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What can I do about discrimination?

What can I do about discrimination?

If you have been discriminated against, first think about what you want to be done. Depending on how you were discriminated against, you may want: your job back, if you think you were unfairly dismissed; compensation; an apology; or a clear sign that an organisation won’t discriminate in the same way in future. Whatever you want, it is usually best to first try to sort out the matter with the person or organisation that has…

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What can I do about racial discrimination?

What can I do about racial discrimination?

If you have been discriminated against, first think about what you want to be done. Depending on how you were discriminated against, you may want: your job back; compensation; an apology; or a clear sign that an individual or an organisation won’t discriminate in the same way in future.   Whatever you want, you must try to sort out the matter first with the person or organisation that has discriminated against or harassed you. If…

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What can I do if I am having difficulty getting the care I need?

What can I do if I am having difficulty getting the care I need?

15. What if I have difficulty getting the care I need? You can use your council’s complaints system if you are unhappy about any aspect of the council’s care, including your assessment. So you can complain if, for example: the council refuses to assess you or leaves you waiting a long time to be assessed; you are not happy with how the assessment was done; you think you are not getting the services you need;…

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What can I do if I am not happy about my child’s school or education?

What can I do if I am not happy about my child’s school or education?

If you are unhappy about your child’s school or education, you can normally sort this out by talking to a member of staff at the school, in the first instance, or, ultimately, the headteacher. However, if these informal efforts do not resolve the problem, you may want to make a formal complaint. You must complain to the school before you do so to any other body. All schools have a complaints policy and procedure, which…

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What can I do if I need ongoing nursing care?

What can I do if I need ongoing nursing care?

If you’re assessed as needing a care home that provides nursing care, and you’re eligible for NHS continuing healthcare, then the NHS may pay for all your care. If you’re not eligible for NHS continuing healthcare, then the NHS must still pay for the part of your care you need a registered nurse for, however much income or savings you have. You may have to pay some or all of the accommodation and personal care…

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What can I do if I think my rights have been breached?

What can I do if I think my rights have been breached?

The European Convention on Human Rights is an international legal document signed by many countries within Europe, which came into force on 3rd September, 1953. The convention is signed by all Council of Europe members, which includes the UK, all EU member states, and other countries including Turkey and Norway. The European Convention on Human Rights created several basic human rights that are believed to be the minimum rights that a human being can expect…

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What can I do if I want to move to a care home that costs more than the council will pay?

What can I do if I want to move to a care home that costs more than the council will pay?

You can choose a home that costs more than the council’s ‘usual cost’, but you will need to get someone to pay the difference between what the council will pay and the home’s fees (a ‘top-up’ or ‘third-party contribution’). This could be a friend, charity or relative. You can’t normally top up the fees yourself, except in a few specific circumstances – ask social services for details if you think you may want to do…

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What can I do if my child cannot go to school (long-term)?

What can I do if my child cannot go to school (long-term)?

If your child has a medical condition, certain educational establishments should support them. This includes: Academies (unless they are only for pupils aged between 16 and 19 years old) Maintained schools Pupil referral units.   The responsibility of informing the school that your child has medical needs falls to you or a healthcare professional. If your child is unable to attend school due to illness or injury, your school and local council will provide the…

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What can I do if my child is being bullied?

What can I do if my child is being bullied?

Your child’s school must have a policy that states what it does to stop bullying. If your child is bullied, you should tell the school straight away. Legally, the school must do all it reasonably can to protect children from bullying. The school might be judged legally responsible in serious cases if it has not stopped spoken or physical bullying that: has caused a child serious harm; and it could have expected to happen. If…

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What can I do if my move into a care home is temporary?

What can I do if my move into a care home is temporary?

You may need to go into a home temporarily, for example: for a short-term break (‘respite care’); while you get over an illness; while you’re waiting for a place in sheltered housing; or for a trial period to see if residential care is right for you. Your assessment should show whether your stay will be temporary or permanent. You should not be charged anything for a short-term stay that is part of ‘intermediate care’. There…

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What can I do to reduce crime in my area?

What can I do to reduce crime in my area?

If you want to make sure that your community is as safe as possible, one of the best things to do is to get involved and help. The starting point is to report crime if you see it, but there are lots of other ways you can tackle crime and protect your neighbourhood. Reporting crime The police and other public services cant tackle crime and anti-social behaviour alone. If people don’t report crime or come…

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What choice of care home do I have?

What choice of care home do I have?

If the NHS is paying for you to go into residential care as part of continuing healthcare, then the NHS decides where you will go to get the medical care you need (but it should take your wishes into account as far as possible). If the council is paying for some or all of your care, then you can, within certain limits, choose the home you want, provided it has places available. The council should…

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What choice of school do I have for my child?

What choice of school do I have for my child?

If you are applying for a place for your child at the normal time that a child starts school, your local authority (LA) may limit the number of schools you can apply to. You apply to most schools through your LA even if the school is in a different local authority area. If you are applying at a time other than when a child normally starts school (for example, because you have just moved into…

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What counts as a disability?

What counts as a disability?

The Disability Discrimination Act says that a disabled person is someone with a physical or mental ‘impairment’ that has ‘a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities’. A ‘substantial adverse effect’ is something that limits your ability in more than a minor or trivial way. Exactly how it limits your ability is important in deciding whether you count as disabled for the purposes of the law. If you…

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What different types of discrimination are there?

What different types of discrimination are there?

The law on equality talks about two types of discrimination. Direct discrimination, which is when you are treated less favourably because, for example, you are a woman, or of a certain age. Indirect discrimination, which can happen where there are rules or conditions, policies or practices at work that apply to everyone but disavantage one group of people more than others, without a good business reason. For example, a company rule that says that employees…

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What do I have to pay for at school?

What do I have to pay for at school?

Education must be free at all state maintained schools and in other educational organisations that the LA pays for (for example, pupil-referral units and some nursery schools). Schools and LAs can charge you for some things. But they can’t force you to pay, unless these things are in their ‘charging policy’. The school or LA should give you a copy of this policy if you ask for it. Schools may charge you for: some teaching…

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What do I need to know about age discrimination?

What do I need to know about age discrimination?

Under the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006, it is unlawful for an employer or potential employer to discriminate against you at work because of your age. This includes: deciding not to employ you; dismissing you; giving you worse terms and conditions at work; not giving you training or a promotion; and not giving you the same benefits as people of a different age. You are also protected from harassment (see page 4) and victimisation (see…

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What do I need to know about anti-terror laws?

What do I need to know about anti-terror laws?

Media coverage of events throughout the world, particularly the September 11th attacks in the US and the police operations both before and after the July 7th bombings in the UK, have brought terrorism into a political focus. Consequently, there is a wealth of anti-terrorism legislation in the UK, which has made significant changes to the law in relation to police investigations, police powers and prosecutions in terrorist offences. Since 2000, there have been five major…

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What do I need to know about being evicted from council housing?

What do I need to know about being evicted from council housing?

If you are evicted from your home, this means that your landlord has ended your tenancy and you must vacate the property. The procedure that your council or housing association must follow in order to evict you is dependent on the type of tenancy you have. However, the standard steps are as follows: Your council or housing association issues you with written notice of its intention to evict you If you do not vacate the…

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What do I need to know about bins and waste collection?

What do I need to know about bins and waste collection?

Your local council is responsible for the collection and disposal of waste in your area. Find out when your bins are collected and how to report a missed collection. Also, learn what can be recycled and how to dispose of bulky items, electrical equipment and clinical waste. Find out when your bins and waste are collected Contact your local council Report a missed bin collection Report a missed bin collection Opens new window Your local…

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What do I need to know about busking and the law?

What do I need to know about busking and the law?

Street performance, or ‘busking’ as it is commonly known, involves performing publicly in the hope of receiving money from an audience. Is busking legal? Busking is legal in the UK. However, children under the age of 14 are not permitted to busk. Can buskers be charged with begging? Under the Vagrancy Act 1824, begging in a public place is a criminal offence. In many respects, busking is a fundamentally different activity to begging. For one…

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What do I need to know about community involvement?

What do I need to know about community involvement?

The government is keen for individuals and communities to take an active part in the planning process. Having your say requires access to information and willingness to given an opinion, either as an individual or in a group. How you can get involved in the planning process The law requires both local and regional planning bodies to prepare a statement of community involvement. These set out policy on involving the community in preparing regional spatial…

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What do I need to know about community justice?

What do I need to know about community justice?

The aim of community justice is to improve local quality of life. It lets people get involved in making their area a better place to live in by helping to reduce anti-social behaviour like graffitiing, vandalism and drug dealing. Community justice in your community Community justice isalso about making sure that people who are affected by bad behaviour and crime have a say in how things are sorted out in their community. This means getting…

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What do I need to know about Community Support Officers?

What do I need to know about Community Support Officers?

What are Community Support Officers? Community Support Officers, or Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs), are trained, civilian members of police staff who work alongside their police officer colleagues. What is the purpose of Community Support Officers? PCSOs serve a number of different purposes. They: provide reassurance to members of the public act as a deterrent against crime support front-line policing in a non-confrontational capacity maintain public order address low-level anti-social behaviour and youth disorder. PCSOs…

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What do I need to know about consulates and embassies?

What do I need to know about consulates and embassies?

Embassies, consulates and high commissions represent the UK in other countries through the British consul. Find out how the British consul works to protect the interests of UK nationals and dual nationals abroad. You can also find out how to find a British embassy or consulate. What diplomatic missions are called Diplomatic missions are always in capital cities of countries. In a Commonwealth country, a diplomatic mission is known as a ‘high commission’. In a…

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What do I need to know about council rent, parking and other charges?

What do I need to know about council rent, parking and other charges?

Paying your council rent Information for council tenants about how you can pay your rent Setting rents for council housing Find out here how rents are set for council housing Insuring your council home and its contents Information for council tenants on insuring your council home and its contents Parking on council estates Information and advice on parking within social housing estates Rent arrears (money, tax and benefits section) Falling behind with your rent –…

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What do I need to know about court of Protection hearings, visitors and deputies?

What do I need to know about court of Protection hearings, visitors and deputies?

Hearings for the Court of Protection are held at a central administration area in London, and in regional centres across England and Wales. You can find details for these below. There is also information for Deputies, and about who Court Visitors are and what they do. Hearing centres for cases The central administration (Registry) for the Court of Protection is based in Archway, North London. This is the hearing centre for cases heard in London…

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What do I need to know about data protection and identity theft?

What do I need to know about data protection and identity theft?

Data Protection What is the Data Protection Act? The Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) controls how organisations, businesses and the Government (‘data controllers’) handles personal information and gives legal rights to individuals who have information stored about them (‘data subjects’). The DPA protects personal data stored in physical and electronic form. How does the Data Protection Act work? The DPA protects personal information in two ways: The DPA establishes rules, called ‘data protection principles’, which…

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What do I need to know about decoration and disturbance allowances?

What do I need to know about decoration and disturbance allowances?

You may be eligible for a payment to help with moving into a new home or to help decorate after the council has carried out work on your council home. In some cases the council will have to move you out of your property for a period of time. What is a decoration allowance? A decoration allowance is a payment made by the council to a tenant in two circumstances – where a tenant is…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination and employment tribunals?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination and employment tribunals?

If you want to bring a claim under the Disability Discrimination Act, you must send it on form ET1 to an employment tribunal office. You can get this form from an employment tribunal, a Jobcentre or the Equality and Human Rights Commission. The employment tribunal will accept your claim only if you use the correct form and include on it all the information they need. If your claim is because of treatment from someone you…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination at school or college?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination at school or college?

The Disability Discrimination Act makes it unlawful to discriminate against disabled people who are: students; applying to a school or college; or potential applicants to a school or college. It also applies to former students of some types of educational institution for people aged over 16. This means that a school or college would be breaking discrimination laws if it, for example: refused to accept applicants with a visual impairment; refused access to a student…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination at work?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination at work?

When you are applying for a job, an employer must not discriminate against you by treating you less favourably in deciding who should be offered the job, and in setting the terms of the employment contract. When deciding who should be offered the job, an employer must avoid discrimination in the: job description; ‘person specification’ (a description of the skills, experience and qualifications needed to do the job); application form; short-listing process; interviewing; and final…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination by private clubs and associations?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination by private clubs and associations?

There are special rules for private clubs and associations that have 25 or more members. A private club is defined as one with a constitution that regulates admission to membership so that it is not open to all members of the public. Most sports clubs and gyms are not covered by the special rules, but are covered by the law relating to service providers. A club where members must go through a selection process (a…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination by public authorities?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination by public authorities?

A public authority is an organisation ‘whose functions are functions of a public body’. This includes, for example: government departments; the Home Office; the Prison Service; local councils; NHS boards and trusts; the police; the Crown Prosecution Service; and the BBC. Some tasks and certain organisations are not covered by this part of the Disability Discrimination Act. However, these exceptions are complicated. If you believe a public authority has discriminated against you, you will need…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination when buying and using goods and services?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination when buying and using goods and services?

‘Goods, facilities and services’ include things that are free, as well as those you pay for. The term covers many businesses and services, including: shops, including mail-order and internet shopping services; hotels, restaurants, bars and nightclubs; bus and railway stations, airports and leisure centres; bank accounts, loans, credit cards and insurance; government departments, courts, doctors and law firms; services offered by local councils, such as parks; trains, trams, taxis, mini cabs, most rental vehicles and…

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What do I need to know about disability discrimination when buying or renting a property?

What do I need to know about disability discrimination when buying or renting a property?

The law on discrimination against disabled people applies to most sorts of property, including houses and flats as well as business premises. However, it doesn’t cover certain types of property and arrangement, including small properties where: the landlord (or one of their close relatives) lives in the same building and shares some of the living accommodation (including a kitchen or bathroom, but not just a hallway or stairs) with the tenant; and the landlord (or…

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What do I need to know about dog fouling?

What do I need to know about dog fouling?

Dog fouling is an eyesore, a serious health hazard and an environmental crime. Dog mess carries the risk of potential diseases for people and dogs: Toxocara T Canis is a serious infection that children are most susceptible to, which can cause severe eye infection and, in some cases, even blindness Parvo can be a fatal disease, which is passed between dogs.   What is the law governing dog fouling? In England and Wales, the Clean…

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What do I need to know about fly-tipping?

What do I need to know about fly-tipping?

If you dump waste where it is not permitted you can face very large fines and even be sent to prison. If you see fly-tipping, you can report it to your council. What is fly-tipping? Fly-tipping is the illegal dumping of rubbish or bulky items on land not licensed to receive it. Fly-tipping can be dangerous, pollutes land and waterways and costs the council tax payer significant amounts of money to clear away. Dumping household,…

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What do I need to know about freedom of information?

What do I need to know about freedom of information?

The Freedom of Information Act 2000 is a groundbreaking piece of legislation that provides the public with the right to access information held by public bodies. The Act came into force in full on 1 January 2005. The purpose of the Freedom of Information Act is to open up data held by public bodies to public scrutiny. Before the Act there was a voluntary code for information sharing, but following the approval of the Act…

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What do I need to know about gay, lesbian or bisexual discrimination?

What do I need to know about gay, lesbian or bisexual discrimination?

If you think you may have been discriminated against at work because you are gay, lesbian or bisexual, this guide will help you to understand your employment rights and how to exercise them. Sexual orientation ‘Sexual orientation’ is also known as sexuality or sexual preference. Your sexual orientation is determined by the sex or sexes you are sexually attracted to: Heterosexual people are attracted to the opposite sex Homosexual (gay and lesbian) people are attracted…

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What do I need to know about general elections and European elections?

What do I need to know about general elections and European elections?

Find out how elections are run, where to find election results, how constituency boundaries are decided and reviewed, and how to stand as a candidate. General elections In a general election, every area in the country votes for one Member of Parliament (MP) to represent them in the House of Commons. There are 646 geographical areas, called constituencies. Each eligible voter has one vote in their local constituency, and the candidate with the most votes…

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What do I need to know about going to a special educational needs and disability tribunal (Sendist)?

What do I need to know about going to a special educational needs and disability tribunal (Sendist)?

If you have a disabled child who you think has suffered unlawful discrimination, you can normally make a claim to a special educational needs and disability tribunal (Sendist). This tribunal can order the discrimination to stop, but it cannot order financial compensation. However, if your complaint is about your child being refused admission to, or being permanently excluded from, a local authority-run school, you must complain to the local authority, not Sendist. If you want…

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What do I need to know about going to an employment tribunal?

What do I need to know about going to an employment tribunal?

You can take your case to an employment tribunal if: you have been through the grievance or disciplinary procedure but are unhappy with the result; your employer hasn’t followed the grievance or disciplinary procedure properly; or the grievance or disciplinary procedure does not apply to your case. In all these cases, you must also have put in your grievance to your employer at least 28 days ago. The cost of going to a tribunal can…

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What do I need to know about government departments and agencies?

What do I need to know about government departments and agencies?

The main role of government departments and their agencies is to implement government policy and to advise ministers. Staffing, finance and organisation Departments and agencies are staffed by politically impartial civil servants and are funded by Parliament. Theywork with local authorities, non-departmental public bodies, and other government-sponsored organisations. The structure and functions of departments are sometimes reorganised if there are major changes in government policy. A change of government, however, does not necessarily affect the…

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What do I need to know about housing allocation schemes?

What do I need to know about housing allocation schemes?

Your local council can allocate accommodation to you through a secure tenancy using its council housing stock. Councils can also nominate someone to be an assured tenant of a housing association home. Why do councils have housing allocation schemes? A council must have an allocations scheme which sets out the priorities and procedures for allocating housing. A council will: provide an application form to anyone who wishes to apply for housing assess whether someone who…

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What do I need to know about housing renewal from the council?

What do I need to know about housing renewal from the council?

Local councils are able to provide discretionary assistance for housing renewal for householders. This may take the form of low cost loans and equity release, as well as grants to private homeowners and others to help them to renovate, repair or adapt their home. Home improvement grants for private householders Local authorities have a great deal of flexibility and freedom in providing discretionary assistance for repairs and adaptations. It is also for the local authority…

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What do I need to know about local councillors?

What do I need to know about local councillors?

Local councils are run by elected councillors who are voted for by local people. Councillors are responsible for making decisions on behalf of the community about local services, for example rubbish collection and leisure facilities, and agreeing budgets and Council Tax charges. Representing the community Councillors are elected by the local community and are there to represent its views. Each councillor represents an area called a ward, serving for four years. There are more than…

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What do I need to know about local government elections?

What do I need to know about local government elections?

Your local council is responsible for providing your local area with services, amenities and facilities. Local government responsibilities Your elected representatives (called ‘councillors’) are there to represent your interests at local level, which is known as ‘local government.’ Depending on your area of residence, your council is responsible for providing some or all of the following services: Council housing Education services Electoral registration Environmental health Leisure and recreational facilities Libraries Local planning Local transport Parks…

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What do I need to know about local government powers and finance?

What do I need to know about local government powers and finance?

Local authorities have a wide range of powers and duties. National policy is set by central government, but local councils are responsible for all day-to-day services and local matters. They are funded by government grants, Council Tax and business rates. Powers and duties Local authorities work within the powers laid down under various Acts of Parliament. Their functions are far-reaching. Some are mandatory, which means that the authority must do what is required by law….

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What do I need to know about my civil rights?

What do I need to know about my civil rights?

Find links to information about your rights and responsibilities depending on your situation in life. For example, you might have different rights if you are married, if you are a parent or if you are a carer for someone who needs help. Couples living together Although cohabitants are given legal protection in several areas, they have significantly fewer rights and responsibilities than couples who are married or who have formed a civil partnership. There is…

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What do I need to know about neighbourhood policing?

What do I need to know about neighbourhood policing?

Every neighbourhood is different – and so are the problems faced by the people who live there. Neighbourhood policing teams work directly with residents to find out what those crime and anti-social behaviour problems are and help get them resolved. You can get involved by attending their monthly meetings, or by contacting them to let them know about your concerns. Neighbourhood policing teams You can find your neighbourhood policing team by entering your postcode Police.co.uk…

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What do I need to know about Neighbourhood Watches?

What do I need to know about Neighbourhood Watches?

You can help police keep your community safe by joining Neighbourhood Watch and keeping an eye out for crime on your street. Find out how to get involved. What is Neighbourhood Watch? Neighbourhood Watch is made up of small groups of volunteer residents in towns and cities around the country. Members look out for signs of crime in their own neighbourhoods, and share that information with each other and local police. They follow basic rules…

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What do I need to know about parking on council estates?

What do I need to know about parking on council estates?

Designated parking areas are provided on council housing estates. Find out what kind of vehicles can be parked in these areas. Rules and enforcement procedure may vary from council to council. Information on what vehicles can be parked in designated areas Tenants should not park any vehicle on the gardens of their property. Any vehicle (caravans, boats on trailers or commercial vehicles) apart from motor cars or motor bikes may not be parked in designated…

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What do I need to know about Parliament?

What do I need to know about Parliament?

The main functions of Parliament are to pass laws, to finance through taxation the work of government, to scrutinise government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure, and to debate the major issues of the day. Parliament Parliament at Westminster in London can legislate for the UK as a whole and has powers to legislate for any parts of it separately. However, it will not normally legislate on devolved matters in Scotland and Northern Ireland…

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What do I need to know about planning permission?

What do I need to know about planning permission?

Decisions on applications for planning and changes to land and building use are made by local planning authorities – usually the local council or National Park planning authority. They take into account: local development plans national policy guidance from the government material considerations such as size, layout, siting, design, external appearance, proposed means of access, landscaping, impact on the neighbourhood, and effects on roads, water and other services the need for an efficient and flexible…

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What do I need to know about political parties?

What do I need to know about political parties?

The party system is based on political groups with their own policies, which compete for the support of the public to win power. In Parliament, the two parties with the most Members of Parliament (MPs) form the government and the opposition. About political parties A political party is an organised group of people who have similar ideas about how the country should be run. Their aim is to get their candidates elected to political power….

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What do I need to know about pupil health and safety?

What do I need to know about pupil health and safety?

Everyone in the education system must do what is sensible to keep pupils safe and healthy. This includes making the school environment as safe as possible. There are several sets of guidelines setting out the good practice that can help schools meet their responsibilities. Responsibility for health and safety Who has ultimate responsibility for pupil health and safety depends on the type of school your child goes to. The local authority draws up a health…

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What do I need to know about racial discrimination at school or college?

What do I need to know about racial discrimination at school or college?

It is against the law for a school or college to discriminate against or harass you or your child: in the terms on which it offers to admit your child; when deciding whether to exclude your child; or in the way your child is taught. The school or college must deal with any racial harassment or abuse by staff. It is also against the law for a local education authority to discriminate when assessing a…

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What do I need to know about racial discrimination at work?

What do I need to know about racial discrimination at work?

It is against the law for an employer to discriminate against you because of your race, when choosing someone for a job, and when deciding which staff will be: promoted; given benefits at work, such as training; disciplined; dismissed; or made redundant. It is against the law for an employer to discriminate in the following cases: When deciding who should be offered a job. This includes the job description, the ‘person specification’ (the description of…

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What do I need to know about racial discrimination when buying goods or services?

What do I need to know about racial discrimination when buying goods or services?

It is against the law for businesses or service providers to racially discriminate against or harass you by: refusing or deliberately failing to provide you with ‘goods, facilities or services'; or not providing goods, facilities or services of the same quality, on the same terms and in the same way as they would to other people. It covers things that are free, as well as those you pay for. It covers many businesses and services,…

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What do I need to know about racial discrimination when renting or buying a house or flat?

What do I need to know about racial discrimination when renting or buying a house or flat?

It is against the law for an estate agent or landlord to discriminate against you or harass you when they are selling or letting property. So, for example, an estate agent could not refuse to show you a property because of your colour, nor could a landlord refuse to let a house to a black family for the same reason. It is also against the law for landlords to discriminate racially in the way they…

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What do I need to know about religion or belief discrimination?

What do I need to know about religion or belief discrimination?

Under English law, you are entitled to practise your religion or hold beliefs, express your views and get on with your daily life without fear of threats or discrimination. This guide provides information about your legal rights and what to do if you are being discriminated against on the grounds of your religion or belief.   Religion and belief You have the legal right to hold your own religious beliefs or other philosophical beliefs similar…

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What do I need to know about school attendance, absences and my child?

What do I need to know about school attendance, absences and my child?

Regular school attendance is an important part of giving your child the best possible start in life. Talking to your child and their teachers could help to solve any difficulties you have in getting your child to go to school – and there are other forms of support available if you still have problems. Regular school attendance – why it’s so important Going to school regularly is important to your childs future. For example, children…

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What do I need to know about school discipline and exclusions?

What do I need to know about school discipline and exclusions?

Your child’s school should have a written policy setting out the standards of behaviour it expects. The policy should outline what the school will do if your child’s behaviour falls below these standards. Promoting good behaviour All pupils in a school benefit when behaviour is good. High standards of behaviour are important in helping children to feel safe and learn well, and parents and carers play a key part in this. The government advises schools…

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What do I need to know about sex discrimination?

What do I need to know about sex discrimination?

Two laws aim to make sure that men and women are treated equally: The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended 1986) makes it unlawful to discriminate against men or women in employment, education, housing or providing goods and services, and also in advertisements for these things. It’s also against the law, but only in work-related matters, to discriminate against someone because they are married or in a civil partnership. The Equal Pay Act 1970 (as…

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What do I need to know about squatters and unauthorised occupants?

What do I need to know about squatters and unauthorised occupants?

What is ‘squatting’? ‘Squatting’ or ‘adverse possession’ occurs when a person intentionally enters property without consent and lives there or has the intention of living there. If a person enters a property with the landlord’s permission, they are not a squatter. Therefore, if someone is renting accommodation and falls into rent arrears, they will not be considered squatting if they continue to live there. Squatting in a residential property, such as a house or flat,…

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What do I need to know about standards in public life?

What do I need to know about standards in public life?

There are several measures in place to make sure MPs and other people in public life carry out their duties in line with a set of rules. Find out what these checks are and what to do if you think an MP or councillor is breaking these rules. Committee on Standards in Public Life The committee keeps watch on the behaviour of people in public life, like MPs. It checks that they are behaving ethically…

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What do I need to know about street cleaning?

What do I need to know about street cleaning?

Your local council is responsible for sweeping streets and removing litter. Find out how your street litter is removed and how to report any problems. Council street cleaning Your local council sweeps roads and footpaths helping to keep the environment clean. If you feel your street needs cleaning, please contact cleansing or environmental services or their alternative at your local council. The council has responsibility for cleaning public land and ‘A’ roads. Please ensure you…

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What do I need to know about tenant organisations?

What do I need to know about tenant organisations?

If you are a council or housing association tenant you can play an active role in how your home or estate is run. There are grants available to help train you and develop the skills and knowledge you may need Getting involved in where you live This can be anything from: organising community events or projects collecting rent and service charges organising repairs and maintenance making sure buildings are kept clean and tidy Types of…

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What do I need to know about terrorism threat levels?

What do I need to know about terrorism threat levels?

The Government uses terrorism threat levels to indicate to the public the likely chances, given the information they have, that there will be an imminent terrorist attack against the country. The threat levels are designed to keep people vigilant when there has not been an attack for a long period, and to raise awareness of the possible increased threat of terrorism should the level duly rise. The threat levels There are currently five different levels…

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What do I need to know about the Commonwealth?

What do I need to know about the Commonwealth?

The Commonwealth is a voluntary association of independent countries, nearly all of which were once British territories. There are 53 members including the United Kingdom, which co-operate in the common interests of their people. Principles and aims The Commonwealth promotes international peace and security, democracy, liberty and equal rights, as well as economic and social development. It opposes all forms of racial discrimination. It represents nearly two billion people almost a third of the world’s…

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What do I need to know about the Court of Funds Office?

What do I need to know about the Court of Funds Office?

The Court Funds Office (CFO) is a banking and administration service utilised by the civil courts in England and Wales, including the High Court. The CFO is responsible for any money being paid into and out of court and, as directed by the court, looks after any investments made with that money. When is money held by the CFO? Circumstances in which the CFO can hold money include: when a child (under 18) is awarded…

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What do I need to know about the different branches of the police force?

What do I need to know about the different branches of the police force?

Previous generations of children may have grown up with one particular image of a policeman or policewoman who where known affectionately as “bobbies on the beat”. That image would have been formed in their minds through years of seeing policeman on the street in their uniform carrying out their general policing. Nowadays there are still thousands of police officers on our streets protecting the peace. The difference today is that the police have far more…

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What do I need to know about the Disability Discrimination Act 1995?

What do I need to know about the Disability Discrimination Act 1995?

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 protects you against the discrimination you may face as a disabled person. The Act says it is discrimination if you are treated less favourably than someone else just because you have a disability, or for a reason that is to do with your disability. The law also says that employers, public authorities (such as your local council or the police), private clubs, schools, colleges and service providers must make ‘reasonable…

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What do I need to know about the Equality Act 2010?

What do I need to know about the Equality Act 2010?

The Equality Act 2010 received Royal Assent on 8 April 2010 and nearly all of its provisions are now in force and valid law in the UK. The Act was designed to harmonise the law and bring together the many different strands of law that existed in relation to disability and discrimination. It was also needed in order to ensure the UK’s compliance with an EU directive in relation to discrimination. The Equality Act states…

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What do I need to know about the European Parliament?

What do I need to know about the European Parliament?

The European Parliament makes decisions on new European laws, jointly with the Council of the European Union. The Parliament is the only directly elected body of the European Union. It has 785 members (MEPs), including 78 from the UK, who represent the people in their part of the country. The role of the European Parliament The European Parliament meets in full session in Strasbourg for one week every month. The rest of the time, the…

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What do I need to know about the European Union?

What do I need to know about the European Union?

The European Union (EU) is a partnership of 27 democratic countries, working together for the benefit of all their citizens. It aims to promote social and economic progress among its members, common foreign and security positions, police and judicial co-operation in criminal matters, and European citizenship. Member states The 27 countries in the EU are listed below, by the year they joined: 1958 – Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands 1973 – Denmark, Ireland,…

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What do I need to know about the government in Northern Ireland?

What do I need to know about the government in Northern Ireland?

Since devolution, some policies and services are different in Northern Ireland. The Northern Ireland Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for most of the issues of day-to-day concern to the people of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Assembly The Northern Ireland Assembly was established as part of the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) in 1998. Devolution to Northern Ireland was suspended in October 2002 and restored on 8 May 2007. The…

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What do I need to know about the government in Scotland?

What do I need to know about the government in Scotland?

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was formed from the union of the Kingdom of Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland by the Acts of Union 1800. Before this, the Kingdom of Britain was created by the union of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. The Irish Free State was partitioned in 1922, to create the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland, which remains part of the Union that is…

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What do I need to know about the government in Wales?

What do I need to know about the government in Wales?

Since devolution, some policies and services are different in Wales. The National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Assembly Government are responsible for most of the issues of day-to-day concern to the people of Wales. National Assembly for Wales The National Assembly for Wales is the representative body, with law-making powers on devolved matters. It debates and approves legislation. The role of the Assembly is to scrutinise and monitor the Welsh Assembly Government. It has…

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What do I need to know about the Government, Prime Minister and Cabinet?

What do I need to know about the Government, Prime Minister and Cabinet?

Her Majesty’s Government consists of those ministers responsible for the conduct of national affairs. The Queen alone appoints the Prime Minister, and all other ministers are appointed by her on the Prime Minister’s recommendation. Government ministers Most ministers are members of the House of Commons, although the government is also fully represented by ministers in the House of Lords. The composition of governments can vary both in the number of ministers and in the titles…

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